Two references in WWHI
Zhang (2012) (see What in WWHI) investigated how mainland Chinese women interpreted beauty and body image amid the globalization and mediated culturalisation. This was done by interviews with 13 Chinese women on the subject of ‘ideal beauty’. It was found that global media has a significant influence on Chinese women’s perceptions of beauty, and the pressures from the peer, family and society attributes to their pursuit of physical beauty via dieting and cosmetic surgery.
Mulhern et al. (2003) (see Why in WWHI) studied how do cosmetics improve female facial attractiveness. This is done by experimentations over 10 volunteers whom are beautician under different cosmetics conditions. It was found that eye-makeup and foundation contribute significantly to the full facial makeup and, unintuitively, lipstick did not contribute to attractiveness independently.
Zhang’s study provides the background of my research, which is concerned by the nationwide pursuit of western ideal of beauty through facial cosmetic surgery in mainland China. On the other hand, Mulhern et al. (2003) ‘s work provides an example of alternative means of enhancing female facial beauty apart from dangerous and painful cosmetic surgery. Their findings not only motivate the objective of my study but also help to design my intervention (see How in WWHI) for the proposed key question (i.e. How can sound be used to raise Chinese women’s awareness on alternative approaches to enhance their attractiveness besides facial plastic surgery?) to enhance their attractiveness?).
Mulhern R., Fieldman G., et al., 2003, Do cosmetics enhance female Caucasian facial attractiveness ? Int. J. Cosmetic Sci. 25:199-205
Zhang M., 2012. A Chinese beauty story: how college women in China negotiate beauty, body image, and mass media. Chinese Journal of Communication, 5(4), 437-454.
A Chinese Beauty Story: How Chinese College Women Negotiate Beauty, Body Image and Mass Media
Last modified: 27-05-2011
As China witness tremendous growth in its economy and beauty industries, Chinese women today are expected to possess both traditional feminine virtues and modern physical beauty under an Anglo-European standard. There has been a lack of scholarly attention paid to the beauty experiences of women living in mainland China; as a media researcher who was born and raised in China but educated in western communication and feminist theories, I offer a unique perspective in studying young Chinese women and how they negotiate beauty and body image in the context of globalization and mediated culturalization. Qualitative in nature, this study explored the “beauty stories” of thirteen college women in mainland China through in-depth interviews. Some distinctive themes were found: 1) These women believed the ideal beautiful Chinese woman should have a tall and thin body, double-eyelid eyes, a “water-melon seed shaped” face, fair skin, and “qi zhi” (inner beauty); 2) Body image related issues such as dieting and cosmetic surgery were centralized in these women’s everyday lives, and they were under significant cultural, societal, family, and peer pressures to pursue physical beauty; 3) Cultural influences, including global media impact, on their perceptions of beauty were complex and multi-layered; 4) The women were hopeful of potential positive social change including a more open-minded Chinese society and liberation of women, and at the same time concerned about the superficiality and extreme beauty standards advocated in the media. The contemporary Chinese beauty story explored in this study is essentially different than the one we know from the West, and the findings contribute to the existing literature on beauty and body image by providing an Eastern and Chinese perspective.
Keywords: China; Chinese women; beauty; body image; cosmetic surgery; media; globalization
For the first reference, It is called A Chinese Beauty Story: How Chinese College Women Negotiate Beauty, Body Image and Mass Media. This reference mentions today the beauty experience of women living in mainland China lacks academic attention. And here are some different aspects to describe the status: 1) Chinese women believe that the ideal Chinese women in their minds should be tall, thin, with double eyelids, “watermelon seed” face and fair skin. 2) Under the rapid development of China’s economic development, the influence of the global media on cultural influences the Chinese people’s perception of the beauty standards are complex and multi-layered. 3) These Chinese women hope to have a potential positive social change, including a more open-minded and culturally diverse China, while paying attention to the superficial and extremely beautiful standards advocated by the media.